Types of filters and water filters for aquariums

by , under My personal life

Do you own an aquarium in your house? And do you ever learn about the best filters for your small aquarium? On the market today there are many types of water filters for aquariums that you can use for your aquarium. Each filter has a design that is specific to the needs of each farmer. This article introduces the types of aquarium filters currently in use.

What is an aquarium water filter?

Aquarium water filters also have many other names such as aquarium filters, aquarium water filters, water filter pumps, aquarium filter pumps, aquarium water filters, aquarium water filters or equipment Water treatment for fish tanks. This is a device that filters the water in the aquarium thanks to the filters that come with the filter. Water is treated cleanly of waste, toxins and toxic gases suspended in the water, making the aquarium clean, oxygen-rich to help the creatures in the lake live healthier.

Typically a filter has 3 filter layers that are: mechanical filter layer, chemical filter layer, and biological filter layer.

  • Mechanical filtration (coarse filtration) is the place where the process of capturing particles, tiny contaminants is suspended in water thanks to filtration materials such as filter cotton.
  • Chemical filtration layer (chemical filtration) is the place where the process of handling toxic chemicals in water thanks to filtering materials such as ceramic filter, activated carbon (carbon), debris. The primary goal is to absorb excess nutrients or chemicals from the aquarium.
  • Biofilter (microbiological filtration) is the place where the disintegration of various bacteria takes place. This is called the nitrogen cycle where waste, uneaten food, and mushrooms are broken down to produce ammonia. Ammonia is a poison that adversely affects aquarium fish, if there is enough space for beneficial bacteria to grow, the nitrogen cycle will continue to work to help remove aquarium nitrates (metabolized from NH3 / Ammonia -> NO2 / Nitrite -> NO3 / Nitrate -> N2 / Nitrogen soar). A good biofilter is one that provides enough oxygen and has space for bacteria to grow.

Now that you know the three filter layers that can be used, we continue to explore the different types of filtration in the aquarium filter system. These types of filters can take advantage of 1, 2 or all 3 filter layers for their filtration systems.

Hang On Back Filter

The hang on back filter is a type of filter that helps clean the aquarium water according to the waterfall model, most commonly used because it comes with standard mechanical, chemical and biological filtration systems. It also has a nice design, is easy to use and installs into an aquarium. The filter is hung directly on the wall of the back or side of the aquarium and draws water from the tank through a siphon.


– The flow created by hang on back filter is quite weak and only revolves around one place.

– This type of filter is small, not many filter accessories, not suitable for use in large tanks. Large tanks should use a tank filter.

Sponge Filter:

Suck filter is a fairly simple filter, used to suck suspended dirt in the water to help clear water. The simple, compact design can be homemade, placed directly into the aquarium and has an air tube of aeration machine (effervescent oxygen machine) vented to the outside. They are made primarily for use in breeding tanks, fry nursery tanks (juveniles), treatment tanks for fish or small fish tanks, invertebrates. As a cheap filter, if you have limited financial resources, you can use it for all tanks from mini aquariums to large aquariums.


– When cleaning the sponge, be careful to use too hot water that can kill the beneficial bacteria here. Just remove the big plaque is okay.

– Sponges (sucking, microfiltration) are the residence of microorganisms, beneficial bacteria.

– Foam filter makes noise from air bubbles.

Canister Filter

Canister Filter are a type of filter in the form of closed tanks placed outside the lake, helping to filter out the water and toxins in the lake. Tank filters create good flow for the tank and can remove dust and dirt from the bottom of the tank. This is the most favorite type of filter used by aquarist, especially for aquariums of 40 galons or more. Suitable for all purposes from freshwater aquarium to marine aquarium.

The barrel filter offers the best mechanical, chemical and biological filtration mechanism thanks to its significantly larger size than the hanging waterfall filter. The filters are also large, so they can handle larger volumes of water in a short time.


Biofiltering is mainly based on the presence of oxygen in water when passing through it. Because the barrel filter is a closed-type filter, without air in contact with the water, the biological filtration here is not as effective as the mechanical and chemical filtration mechanism of this filter.

Undergravel Filter

Undergravel Filter is a filter located at the bottom of the lake, pulling water through gravel / substrate to filter water. Suitable for mini aquariums, not for aquariums because the substrate will be sucked into the filter.


– Chemical filtration class is not available at this Undergravel filter.

In addition, stir the surface and clean otherwise the plaque will build up, which causes a lot of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas to smell and smell rotten.

Internal Filter

Internal Filter is a type of water filter placed inside, completely submerged under the tank water.

This filter is quite compact, simple modern design, suitable for small tanks, mini fish tanks. Most people use this filter for tanks of less than 20 gal, which are attached to one side of the aquarium glass like a hanging waterfall filter.

Some others prefer to put the Internal filter at the bottom of the aquarium so that the dirt is sucked into the filter, not enough time to settle.

Some Internal filters have an additional aerator to raise the water through the filter, which helps the biological filtration mechanism to be better thanks to the addition of oxygen for microorganisms to function.


You may find that there are many types of aquarium water filters that you can choose from. To choose the right filter for your aquarium or aquarium, first find out how many species you are keeping in your tank and the characteristics of each.

After knowing the necessary information and equipping appropriate effervescent equipment, you will not spend too much time on your aquarium. Instead, use the time of the coming years to enjoy the beauty of the aquatic ecosystem you have built.